ASSOCIATION BETWEEN COMMON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND HEART FAILURE WITH NORMAL EJECTION FRACTION
Keywords:Heart Failure With Normal Ejection Fraction (HFNEF), Risk Factors, Diastolic Dysfunction, Transthoracic Echocardiography, Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI)
AbstractObjective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between
common risk factors and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF).
Methodology: This was a case control study conducted at Department of
Cardiology, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar from March 2011 to
November 2011. Patients having HFNEF, of both genders with age > 40 years
were taken as cases. Parents of children presented to Pediatric out patient
department (OPD) of LRH Peshawar, of both gender with age > 40 years were
taken as control. Cases and controls were carefully scrutinized for the detection
of common risk factors like obesity, hypertension, diabetes and coronary artery
disease (CAD). Logistic regression was used to see the effect of risk factors in
both the groups. Odds ratio and p-value was calculated for each risk factor in both
Results: A total of 139 patients each in cases and control groups were studied. In
the cases and controls, males were 45.3% and 49.6% respectively. The average
age was 56.64 ± 10 years for the cases and 48.92± 10 years for controls.
Hypertension was noted in 54.7% and 29.5% of cases and controls respectively
(OR= 3.543, p= 0.000), CAD in 34.5% and 6.5% of cases and controls (OR=
7.619, p= 0.000), Diabetes mellitus in 33.1% and 10.1% (OR=4.416, p=
0.000), and Obesity in 15.1% and 20.1% cases and controls (OR= 0.706, p=
Conclusion: CAD, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus are strongly associated
clinical risk factors in patients with HFNEF.