PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE WITH NORMAL EJECTION FRACTION (HFNEF)
Keywords:Heart Failure With Normal Ejection Fraction (HFNEF), Risk Factors, Diastolic Dysfunction, Transthoracic Echocardiography, Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI)
AbstractObjective: To determine prevalence of risk factors in patients with heart failure
with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF).
Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted at the
Department of Cardiology, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients referred
from Out Patient and Emergency Departments to the Echocardiography
department meeting the criteria for HFNEF were included. All the patients were
carefully scrutinized for common risk factors. They were subjected to detailed
history and clinical examination. Their clinical record was checked, BMI
calculated, ECG and Transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Data was
analyzed on SPSS version 15.
Results: The total number of patients studied was 139. Males were 45.3% and
females were 54.7%. Mean age ± SD was 56.64 ± 10 years. Patients were
divided into three groups on the basis of age. There were 42.4% patients in age
group 40-54 years, 44.6% in age group 55-69 and 12.9% in age group 70 and
above. Majority (51.8%) of the patients were in NYHA class II. Hypertension
(59.7%) was the most common risk factor for HFNEF, followed by Coronary
artery disease in 34.5%, Diabetes mellitis (DM) 33.1% and Obesity in 15.1%. A
significant number of patients 21.6% had no obvious risk factor. Sixty one
(43.88%) patients had more than one risk factor contributing to diastolic
Conclusion: Arterial hypertension, Coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus
and obesity are the major factors in patients with diastolic dysfunction and
HFNEF. A significant proportion of patients have multiple risk factors for HFNEF.