THE POTENTIAL OF INTRA-OPERATIVE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC IMAGING DURING CARDIAC RESYNCHRONIZATION TREATMENT
Keywords:Echocardiography, cardiac resynchronization treatment, pacemaker optimization, mechanical dyssynchrony, intraoperative.
AbstractCardiac resynchronization treatment (CRT) causes improvement in symptoms and reverse cardiac
remodeling in patients with drug resistant congestive heart failure. Improvement of patient selection criteria
by mechanical rather than electrical dyssynchrony has been proposed to decrease the number of non
responders which may be as high as 50% when echocardiographic reverse remodeling is used as an
improvement criterion. Use of echocardiography thus far has been limited to evaluation pre and post CRT.
No imaging modality has been tested intra-operatively during device implantation to assist with selection of
optimum site of lead implantation, to detect immediate effect of CRT on cardiac function and secondary
parameters and for pacemaker optimization. This article evaluates current status and potential of imaging
using echocardiography during CRT.